Name of months in English and Hindi

Months Name in Hindi English Months Name बैसाख अप्रैल-मई जयेष्ट मई-जून अषाढ़ जून-जुलाई श्रावण जुलाई-अगस्त भाद्रपद अगस्त-सितंबर अश्विन सितंबर-अक्टूबर कार्तिक …

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How are bacteria helpful to humans

Bacteria are single celled micro-organisms. They live in various places and they are everywhere, you can find them in water, in air and inside your body.

In human body there are good bacteria as well as bad bacteria. Good bacteria are good for us but bad bacteria are not so good.

Sometimes some bacteria do kill us because they have become antibiotic resistance bacteria but sometimes they help us.

Millions and trillions of microbes live in or on our body and we don’t even realize. Some of the microbes are helpful for us in fighting the bad guys in our body but some of them are just the bad guys which causes diseases.

Here we are going to find out some of the good bacteria that do not kill us but help us. Some bacteria help us fight with bad bacteria. They also help us in digestion of our food.

4 Examples of good bacteria

Lactobacillus Acidophilus

These bacteria are generally found in fermented food. This bacteria produces an enzyme called lactase which breaks the lactose that are
found in milk products to lactic acid.

They are naturally found in intestine, stomach, vagina and oral cavity. In vagina they produce lactic acid which helps to curb fungal infections.

  1. This bacteria helps to reduce cholesterol in our body.
  2. They help to prevent against diarrhea 
  3. Helps in Weight loss
  4. Helps against Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Bifidobacterium

This bacteria is found in gastrointestinal tract, vagina and mouth humans and other mammals.

This bacteria helps our body digest fiber and other complex carbs which even our body can’t digest. This bacteria is very helpful for our gut microbiome. It makes upto 10% of the total bacteria present in our gastrointestinal tract or gut microbiome.

Escherichia coli

This bacteria is found in intestine. Some of its strains are harmful but some are useful to our body. This bacteria helps in digestion as well as it eats harmful substances that are used by other bacteria to grow. This means, it prevents us from other harmful bacteria.

This bacteria also helps to synthesize vitamin k.

Streptococcus thermophilus

This bacteria is also found in milk products and is used in production of yogurt.

This virus improves immunity too. It helps to fight against viruses, fungi and parasites that invade our gastrointestinal tract.

5G Technology Explained

As the demand of mobile data is increasing day by day, we are expecting more faster technologies like 5G in near future. Many companies are working to develop this technologies so that 5G could fulfill the needs of our future netizens.

5G Mobile Network is the next generation of wireless communication which promises to provide faster speeds, low latency and increased capacity to transfer data.

5G is 5th generation of standards for mobile telecommunication.

1G refers to the first generation which was adopted in early 1990s.

2G refers to the second generation, which replaced analog 1G to fully digital 2G network. 2G network first introduced SMS (Text
Messages ), MMS (Multimedia Messages)

3G refers to the third generation which increased the speed of communication and this could support new things like video calling, live streaming, mobile internet.

4G is the successor of 3G, 4G is around 5 to 7 times faster than 3G. It provides speed from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps.

How 5g Works

To understand how 5g works we need to understand the following two topics i.e millimeter waves and small cell network.

4G network uses lower frequency network and it’s frequency band lies between 2 – 8 GHz where as 5G network uses higher frequency 28 and 39GHz. These higher frequency are known as millimeter waves. These millimeter waves can carry large amounts of data at a very high speed with low latency or lag (response time).

Millimeter Waves

Millimeter waves is the region of electromagnetic spectrum where wavelength ranges from 10 millimeters (0.4 inches) to 1 millimeter (0.04 inches)

Millimeter waves are longer than infrared waves, or x-rays but are shorter than microwaves or radio waves. Millimeter waves are also known as Extremely high frequency (EHF) because there band of radio frequency lies between 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz) in the electromagnetic spectrum. Radio waves in this band have wavelengths from 10 to 1 millimeter that is why it’s call millimeter band. Millimeter waves have one dis- advantage that they can not travel very long distances because generally they are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere.

Millimeter waves travels in straight lines from point A to point B which means any interference in between can block the transmission. Even a animal, human walking in between point A and Point B can block the transmission.

There are two solution to tackle these challenges: Beamforming and Beamtracking. In simple terms beamforming means send beam of radio waves directly to your mobile but due to interference one beam could not work that is why there can be multiple beams pointing to your phone and your phone catches the strongest beam through beam-tracking.

If sender and receiver are not in a straight line then beam can be bounced off a surface to precise angle then receiving device like beam tracking can use the strongest signal. Even a interference like your hand on mobile antenna could block the beam single. Companies are working in this regard and there is consideration to use 2 antennas at the corner of the mobile phone.

Small Cell Networks

Small Cell Networks are kind of sub networks that can be implemented with a big macro network, to the small network for example in a building we can call this network a pico cell.

Small cell networks can help 5g network to reach wider area for example indore or out door small cell networks.

5g technology will utilize 2 types of towers. One is large tower and we can it macro network other one will be small towers, we can call this small cell network.

While macro is sufficient for larger areas, small cell networks are for short distances and can be used in cities or inside building.

Small cells are wireless transmitters and receivers.

Applications of 5G Technology

Smart Homes

Home appliances can be connected together to better manage a house remotely. Chances are your food might be ready when you arrive home. Through 5g all home appliances can communicate with each other in real time and monitoring can be done through remote areas.

Smart Homes are no longer a fiction but many companies are working in this segment

Self Driving Cars

5G will really give boost to self driving car technology because self driving cars need to communicate with other cars to know their location in real time.

Every decision needs to be made in milliseconds to avoid any potential collision.

Faster Network

5g technology will allow us to download data at the speed of 10 to 20 GBPS which is similar to fiber optics speed. Using 5G voice and high speed data can be transferred simultaneously.

Internet of Things

Internet of things is another idea to connect every device, machine, appliances with internet. This would require a most efficient way to transfer huge amount of data and 5G fits to this technology.

What is Light

Short answer : Light is energy

What we see as light is just a tiny portion of what is called electromagnetic spectrum.

The more apt answer would be ‘Light is elctromagnetic radiation’

You might have heard some fancy words like gamma-rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, and radio and you would be surprised to know that they are all light.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum consists of many wave lengths of light. When you put prism in sun, you can see the rainbow of light, each wavelength is redirected at different angle and that’s what create the rainbow like structure.

Source Wikipedia

Electromagnet Spectrum can be broken down into following waves.

Radio Waves

The length of radio waves can be as large as a football field to the size of planet. Most of the stars emit radio waves in universe. Those Radio waves are the same waves that are transmitted by a radio station and are received by your radio device where you listen your favourite music.

Radio telescopes are used to study these radio waves emitted in our universe and solar system. Through radio telescope we can study the structure, composition and motion of heavenly bodies.

Do you know how data is sent using radio waves ?

Most of the time radio waves amplitude or frequency is same all the time and this is where we can manipulate things to send our data using radio waves.

Supppose if we had to send data such as 0 or 1

We can send this in two ways

  1. By amplitude modulation
  2. Frequency modulation

Microwave

You might have heard about microwave oven, where food is cooked quickly. Do you know how it happens?

Microwaves are actually high frequency radio waves that makes water and oil molecules to vibrate thus making the food hot and cook.

Microwaves are also emitted by mobile phones. Thus it can affect the part of your brain. If you are still young and your brain is still growing please avoid using cell phones.

Looking for long at microwave oven when food is being cooked may cause you cataract. Please avoid opening oven every time to check if food is ready.

Infrared

Infrared waves have a wavelength of 700 nm to 1 mm. We can’t see infrared waves but we can feel it as a form of heat.

Infrared is used in thermal imaging and for night vision. Since living organisms body has heat, which it emits , that can be caught by thermal imaging.

Using infrared waves we can see many things in our universe that is not visible through normal telescope. Many planets emit infrared which helps scientist study them with out the need for visible light.

Infrared light helps scientists study things that are covered by dense cloud of dust and gas, because infrared waves have longer wavelengths which can easily pass through gas and dust.

Visible Light

The visible light has wavelength that ranges from 400 nm to 700 nm. The visible light is the light that can be seen by our eyes.

The following table lists the different colors of visible light spectrum and their wavelengths.

ColorWavelength (nm)
Red625 – 740
Orange590 – 625
Yellow565 – 590
Green520 – 565
Cyan500 – 520
Blue435 – 500
Violet380 – 435

fire flies, light bulbs, stars they all emit visible light.

Ultraviolet Rays

Sun is the main source of ultraviolet rays, UV rays causes skin cancer if exposed for prolonged time.

There are three types of UV radiation that is radiated from the sun.

  • UVA
  • UVB
  • UVC