The image of solar cell glistering in the sun illustrates many a many magazine article on modern technology. But the means of converting light energy into electrical energy is nothing new. A photovoltaic effect, where by light hitting an electrode immersed in an electrolyte produces a current, was first observed in 1839 by A.E. Becquerel. This phenomenon was harnessed in 1984 when the first solar cell was built by American scientist Charles Frits. Frits used the less than economic design of semi-conductive selenium coated in a thin layer of gold to achieve the conversation, at an efficiency of just 1%. The cell works by absorbing energy in the form of photons of light, which then displace electrons in the semiconductor, generating a current. Due to the lower efficiency no one was ever going to power their home with these cells.
Solar technology benefited from the introduction of silicon semiconductor in 1941. Developments in the 1950s and 1960s increased the efficiency of levels where domestic application became a light weight power source for space craft and satellites. Researchers have been working hard to mop up this energy by using certain devices and one of them is solar cell or Photovoltaic cell. The breakthrough was achieved in 1954 by three scientists named Calvin Fubber, Gerald Pearson and Daryl Chapin at Bell laboratories. And they created the first Solar cell made of high-quality solar cell for everyday uses. Material scientists have identified potential III-V semiconductor compounds, nanotechnology and organic materials that can be used in the design and development of solar cells, also known as photovoltaic (PV) cells. It is important to point out that PV cells are not only environmentally friendly, but they offer clean, efficient, reliable, and uninterrupted sources of electrical energy.
The amount of energy from the sun’s radiation falling on just 1 square kilometer is about 4000 megawatts more than enough to light a big city. The technology is still inefficient today, with commercial cells performing at only ground 13% and the world record standing at 4.28%. Still, this is enough to power homes, Outdoor gadgets and spacecraft.
Technology and basic principle behind solar cell
At the point when light sparkles on a photovoltaic (PV) cell, it might be reflected, consumed, or go directly through it. The PV cell is made out of semiconductor material, which joins a few properties of metals and a few properties of separators. That makes it exceptionally equipped for changing over light into power. At the point when light is consumed by a semiconductor, photons of light can exchange their vitality to electrons, enabling the electrons to move through the material as electrical current. This present streams out of the semiconductor to metal contacts and after that advances out to control your home and whatever is left of the electric matrix. There are a wide range of semiconductor materials utilized as a part of sun oriented cells.
According to studies, 55% of modern solar cells are made of polycrystalline silicon innovation, 30% of them of single gem silicon innovation, 5.6 percent of undefined silicon (a-Si), 6 percent of a-Si-on-CZ cut, and 3.5 percent by thin-film and less than 1% cells made of organic cells and concentrated cells. There are various sun based cells electrically associated with each other and mounted in a help structure or casing is known as a photovoltaic module. Modules are intended to supply power at a specific voltage, for example, a typical 12 volts framework. The current created is specifically reliant on how much light strikes the module. When multiple modules are wired together it’s called array and the larger the area of array the more electricity can be produced.