What is Volcano? Types of Volcano?

Volcano is a natural disaster, which is extremely deadliest to nature, animal and mankind. Volcano that is volcanic eruption occurs in mountain with a hole in the upper middle part. Volcano basically allows the material in the interior to flow out side.

A volcano is a rupture in the Earth’s crust that allows hot lava, volcanic ash and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. As magma rises, the pressure decreases and then it allows the gases to forms bubbles. On earth, majority of volcano occurs in the places where the tectonic plates are diverging or converging. The occurred volcano could be active or dormant or extinct.

Volcanoes have existed for a longer time on earth. And it has caused a huge destruction every time it has erupted. Although the volcano erupting on the Moon and Mars are dormant, but the volcano erupting on Jupiter are still very active on Jupiter. Researchers are currently working on finding the ways to predict a volcano before time and also researching about the remedies to not let volcano occur.

Signs that warn you about volcano:

Frequent occurring of small earthquakes
Recognisable hot steaming on large open grounds.
Swelling on ground surface.
Minor changes in heat flow

Types of volcano:

Geologist generally have grouped volcanoes in four main types.

Cinder cone volcano

Cinder cone volcanos are known to be the simplest types of volcanos. Cinder cone volcano occurs when the particles and the blobs of lava are ejected from the volcanic vent. The lava blows violently in the air the drops fall down wards on the surface like rain drops.

Composite volcano

Composite volcano is also known as stratovolcano. Composite volcano has occurred Mount Rainier, Mount Fuji and Mount Cotopaxi till the date. This volcano has a conduit system within. During the eruption of this type volcano, they can have clusters of vents, with the lava breaking through walls and it also affects adversely on the mountain, the mountain can collapse completely.

Shield volcano

Shield Volcano is huge, broad and it looks shield from above, as the name suggests. The lava that erupts is thin in texture and it can travel down the slope. Shield volcanos aren’t likely to explode catastrophically. And these volcanos build up very gradually, it generally takes over a year, and hundreds of eruptions, creating hundreds of layers.

Lava domes

Lava domes are created by masses of lava which are too thick and cannot travel far through the slope. Lava domes are completely paradoxical to Shield Volcanos. With low viscosity, the magma from volcanic domes piles up on and around the vent, for the years. Lava domes can explode very violently, realising a huge amount of hot rock and ashes.

Types of volcanic eruption:

Hydrothermal Eruption

Hydrothermal Eruption is driven by heat in hydrothermal systems. This type of eruption can produce ashes but cannot produce or include magma. This is the basic and less dangerous type of eruption.

Phreatic Eruption

This eruption occurs when the heat in the magma interacts with water. Even phreatic eruptions cannot produce or include new magma.

Phreatomagmtic Eruption

Phreatomagmtic Eruption is an eruption which occurs when new magma or lava interacts with water. It can be very explosive.

Hawaiian Eruption

Hawaiian Eruption is the least violent type of explosion. This eruption has fire fountains and lava flows.

Vulcanian Eruption

Vulcanian Eruption is very small to moderate, which means they are less destructive compared to others. This eruption lately lasts for minutes. The ashes may be up till 20 km in height.

On a concluding note, volcano occurs once, but they are hazardous. There are different types of volcano which occur differently and erupt in their own way. Volcano is obviously a natural calamity we cannot stop the occurrence of volcano, but we can try remedies that could decrease the frequency.

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