India Paleolithic Era

Homo Erectus from Genus Homo were found  in India some 200,000 to 500,000 years ago.

bhimbetka rock painting

Bhimbeka Rock painting found in India Madhya Pradesh is 30000 years old. The word India comes from Indus River of Indus Valley Civilization.

According to Puranas India’s religious text that goes back to 5 CE. India was know as Bharata and the whole India was called Bharatvarsha. Where people used to live in peace and harmony. The Human Activity in India stretches back over  250,000 years. India is one of the oldest inhabited places on earth.


Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1300 BCE)

Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan civilization was one of the oldest 3 civilizations in the world. Civilization flourished on the basin of Indus River now in Pakistan and India. Indus Valley Civilization is famous for Urban panning, brick houses, drainage system, water supply system, handicraft and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, tin)

Vedic Period (c. 1700 – 150 BCE)

During vedic period people people followed Vedas. Vedas like Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda had ideas and practices of Vedic religion which led to the foundation of Sanatan Dharma which is know today as Hinduism.

During this period society was divided into classes also known as caste system. Caste System was according to the work people used to do but later it because more rigid and hereditary people were not allowed to change their caste or work any other thing except what was described in their caste.

Though there are many deities in Hinduism it believes in one God Brahma.

The largest Empire in India was Maurya Empire ruled under Chandragupta Maurya 322-298 BCE

China Paleolithic Era

Homo Erectus tools found in China date back to 1.36 million years

Traces of Bone tools found in China date back to 35,000 years. Peking Man, fossils found near Beijing, used to live some  700,000 to 200,000 years ago. The China word comes from the Sanskrit word cina, the word is also found in Mahabharata. Originally China was known as `Zhongguo” meaning the central state. China is also one of the oldest inhabited places on earth.

Ancient civilization in China flourished on the banks of Yellow River and Yangtze River. Human activity has been verified on the banks of these rivers as far back as 27000 years ago. Yellow River was infamous for floods. It has killed millions of People.

The cultures that flourished on the bank of Yangtze River were Hemudu and Majiabang cultures. They used to cultivate Rice.

The first Dynasty that appeared in China was Xia Dynasty. It appeared around c. 2070 to 1600 BCE. The founder of this Dynasty was “Yu the Great”. He worked relentlessly to stop the flood caused by Yellow River. He established the rule that ruling class and elite people will live in Urban areas while the peasants will live in rural areas. After death of Yu, the dynasty was handed over to his son Qi. Xia Dynasty ended after Tang defeated the Xia ruler Jie.

Later Tang established Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE). Under Shang Dynasty writing, religion, metallurgy, agriculture were developed.

History tells us that both India and China are ancient civilizations. Civilizations in both India and China have been existed for thousands of years.



Now we are going to look where do they stand today.