ISRO GSLV Mk III

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has been at the forefront of space exploration in India. It has had many successful projects and has made India proud on several occasions. ISRO GSLV Mk III is also one such project. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark 3 is also known, simply, as the LMV3 or Launch Vehicle Mark 3. It is developed with a view to having a launch vehicle for medium lifts. The main intent for developing it was to have a launch vehicle that can easily launch satellites to the geostationary orbit. It is one of the most important programs that come with the Indian Human Spaceflight Program. Its predecessor GSLV had a slightly lesser capacity than this one. It has a total of three successful launches with no failures so far.

SOURCE ISRO

Story Behind The Conceptualization Of ISRO GSLV Mk III

The first launch on the GSLV Mk III was conducted on June 5, 2017, after a series of delays. It was done at the Satish Dhawan Space Center that is located in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Its development started in the early months of 2000 after the design was approved by ISRO. In the beginning, the plan was to have two different launchers – one for the larger ones for payloads that need to be sent to the Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) through the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle and the other one for Polar orbit in the low Earth orbit through the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. However, in the end, this plan was reconceptualized, and they decide to build a stronger launch vehicle. This is how GSLV Mk III came into existence.

The Design Of GSLV Mk III

The design of GSLV Mk III is something that makes it so much more powerful than its predecessors. It has two Large Solid Boosters (LSB) called the S200 solid motors that are attached to its core. The height of each booster is 25 meters, and the width is 3.2 meters. It can carry a weight of 207 metric tons of propellant. It can be counted as the largest booster for solid fuel after the Ariane 5 SRBs and Space Shuttle SRBs. This is the first stage.

Now, the second stage has an L110 designated which is the stage of liquid fuel and has a width of 4 meters and a height of 21 meters. It has a capacity of 110 metric tons of Nitrogen Tetroxide and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. Two of the Vikas 2 engines give power to it. Each of them produces 755 kilonewtons thrust and gives out 1532 kilonewtons of total thrust. In short, the Vikas engine individually gimbals for the roll control, yaw and the control of the vehicle pitch.

Important Missions Of GSLV Mk III

The first mission of the GSLV Mk III that took its orbital flight took place on June 5, 2017. It carried D1 (GSAT-19) which is a communication satellite and was the heaviest payload that was ever launched by ISRO. It was a successful mission, and the satellite was perfectly placed into the GTO at a distance of 170 kilometers. Some other successful missions apart from D1 include D2 and X. There are more launches planned in the coming years.

Final Words

Overall, GSLV Mk III is one of the biggest achievements of ISRO and has lead to some important breakthroughs. Being the first vehicle launcher for heavyweight satellites, it has taken the space programs of India to the next level. It has also laid the foundation for some future developments and upgradations of spacecraft designed by ISRO.

List of ISRO Satellites

The Indian Space Research Organization or ISRO has been successful in sending many satellites to space. With its mission of carrying out space research to make the lives of people on the Earth easier, ISRO has sent satellites in various areas. These satellites are, perhaps, amongst the biggest achievements of ISRO.

Let’s check out the ISRO satellites that have been launched so far!

Communication Satellites

Communication satellites are one of the most important satellites that contribute to making our lives much easier. The data from these satellites are used in our daily life starting from television broadcasting, telecommunication, satellite news gathering, weather forecasts, helps in rescue and search operations, warning about possible natural calamities or disasters and much more. In short, without even realizing we use the data sent by these satellites almost every single day.

As a part of communication satellites, the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) is known to be amongst the largest systems for the domestic communication system of satellites in the entire region of Asia Pacific. It has as many as nine communication satellites that are operational and are placed in the Geostationary Orbit.

The communication satellites were established for the first time in the year 1983 with INSAT 1B commissioned perfectly to space. With these satellites, India saw one of the biggest revolutions in the communication sector. Overall, these satellites work day and night to give us reliable information about communication, weather, natural disasters and much more. Some of these satellites are GSAT-7A, GSAT-29, GSAT-17, GSAT-19 and many more.

Earth Observation Satellites

The Earth Observation satellites began its journey with ISRO in the year 1988 with the launch of IRS-1A. Since then, there has been no going back, and ISRO has successfully launched many Remote Sensing satellites that are currently in operation. This has made India a country with one of the largest numbers of constellations with remote sensing satellites.

Some of the important ones that were launched recently are HysIS, SCATSAT-1, Cartosat-2 Series Satellite and many more. Many instruments are sent with these satellites so that relevant Earth-related data can be gathered. It helps in attaining data in a more diversified temporal, spatial, and spectral that can cater to different types of users across the globe as well as within the country. Some of the many uses of the data gathered from these satellites are for water resources, rural development, agriculture, environment, forest, ocean resources, and others.

Scientific Spacecraft For Space Exploration

The Indian Space Research programs are designed to research varied areas including astrophysics, astronomy, atmospheric sciences, planetary & earth sciences, theoretical physics and much more. Hence there are some sounding rockets available to carry out atmospheric experiments. Satellites like AstroSat, Mars Orbiter Mission and Chandrayaan 1 are some of the satellites that fall under this category. They help in making Space exploration a reality and have also achieved several breakthroughs in the past. Chandrayaan 2 will also be launched very soon which is a much-advanced version of the already existing ones.

Navigation Satellites

The navigation satellites have become very popular in recent times and are known to have commercial as well as strategic applications. ISRO aims to improve its navigation satellites to cater to the demands of the aviation sector. Currently, ISRO is working on a joint project with Airport Authority of India (AAI) to develop GAGAN or GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation. Some of the Navigation satellites of India are IRNSS, GAGAN, NavIC, and others. The aim is to make navigation much easier with the help of these satellites.

Experimental Satellites

ISRO has dedicated some of its satellites for experimental purposes and launched their satellites keeping this in mind. The experiments include Payload Development, recovery technology, remote sensing, atmospheric studies and a lot more. Some of the satellites that were launched for this purpose are INS-1C, INS-1B, INS-1A, APPLE, YOUTHSAT, Rohini Technology Payload (RTP), Rohini Satellite RS-1 and Aryabhata. These satellites are also very important to take the arena of space studies ahead. They have played a vital role in carrying out experiments ever since they were launched.

Small Satellites

The small satellites are designed to offer a platform that can be stand-alone payloads for the imaging of earth and other scientific missions that require a quick turn around. Two buses have been developed to give an adaptable platform for varied kinds of payloads. These are the Indian Mini Satellite – 1 (IMS – 1) and the Indian Mini Satellite – 2 (IMS – 2) bus. They have a good capacity to offer a platform for these small satellites. The satellites sent within this category are YOUTHSAT and Microsat. These small satellites are quick and efficient in gathering simple information or photos from the space.

Student Satellites

ISRO has a great influence on academic institutions and universities, thanks to its communication satellites, astronomy, and remote sensing. When Chandrayaan 1 was launched, the universities and educational institutions became more interested in launching such experimental satellites for students. Therefore, the universities that are interested and capable can enter into a venture with ISRO to develop such satellites. This collaboration is carried out in two ways that include the development of payload by educational institutions or satellite design as well as a fabrication by the university institution. The purpose is to have greater involvement of educational institutions and the young minds in them. ISRO assists in all these programs, so it works in the advantage of both. ISRO gets to work with young talent, and students who want to pursue their career in this field get the right exposure.

Final Words

To sum up, the ISRO has a diverse set of satellites that cover a wide range of activities in space. They have achieved a lot in all of the given categories and are working positively to achieve more. ISRO is a place where many brilliant minds of India reside. Hence, there is no doubt that ISRO will succeed in sending out many more satellites and will make our lives, even more, easier in the coming future.

References

https://www.isro.gov.in/spacecraft

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_satellites

ISRO Chandrayan-2 Mission

Chandrayan literally means moon-vehicle, and it is the second mission that is being planned from India to explore Moon. It has an expected launch date of April 2019. Needless to say, Chandrayan is being designed by ISRO and is planned to be launched by GSLV Mk III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III. The Indian Space Research Organization has developed a rover, lander and an orbiter that will all be launched with a view to adding to the already existing pool of information about Moon.

The aim of Chandrayan 2 would be to soft land a rover and a lander between Simpelius N and Manzinus C that are two craters on the moon. If this mission is successful, then India would be proud to say that they have sent two missions to the moon. This mission will be testing as well as using many new technologies and also conduct many new experiments. The wheeled rover of Chandrayan is so advanced that it will move around the lunar surface and do some chemical analysis on-site. This data will be transmitted to the Earth with the help of the orbiter.

Specifications of Chandrayan 2

As already mentioned, the operator of this mission would be ISRO. The weight of Chandrayan 2 is around 3290 kilograms. This mission would last approximately for one year where the orbiter would be for one year, the Lander for 15 days and the Rover for 15 days. Chandrayan will be launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Center which is in the city of Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.

How Will It Work?

The plan is that after reaching the lunar orbit of 100 kilometers, the Lander that houses the Rover will separate itself from the Orbiter. There will be a controlled descent of the Lander, and it will be soft land on the surface of the moon that will be already specified. Finally, the Rover will be deployed there. The predecessor of this mission was Chandrayan 1 which was the first mission sent to the moon by India. It was very successful in collecting some valuable data. It even brought some evidence that showed the availability of water on the moon. Therefore, a more advanced space mission has many hopes attached to it.

What Will It Do?

The Chandrayan mission of ISRO will carry with it a Rover of six wheels. This Rover will be running in a semi-autonomous mode as per the ground commands. It will move around the site where it lands. There would be instruments attached to this Rover so that it can observe the surface of the moon and secure some interesting data. This data will be then sent back to India. It will be very helpful in analyzing the lunar soil.

Chandrayan would orbit around the moon to get some valuable data through remote sensing of the moon. This will collect some useful scientific information about various lunar aspects like the topography, elemental abundance, mineralogy, water-ice as well as signatures of hydroxyl and lunar exosphere. Hence there are many things that Chandrayan can potentially do. It will definitely be a big breakthrough.

What Caused the Delay in The Launch of Chandrayan 2?

Initially, Chandrayan was supposed to be launched in October 2018. However, now the date has been pushed to April 2019. So, what caused this delay? According to sources, the delay was initially caused because the Lander that was developed in India was having problems with re-throttling. So, it was sent back to get its design changed. A senior official from ISRO revealed that there were vibrations while re-throttling. This could be because of a problem with thrusters. Therefore, it is better to check the design once again before the launch. Initially, the plan was to launch it through GSLV II, but now, with the changed plan, GSLV III will launch it. However, GSLV III has only launched two vehicles so far. So, there are still talks going on before finalizing it.

Initially, India had a deal with Russia for its Lander, but after one of the biggest failures of Russian space missions with Fobos Grunt Mission, they were under strict technical scrutiny. So, they said that they would not be in a position to deliver the Lander on time. As a result, India called the deal off and decided to make its own Lander.

Thanks to these issues, the launch of Chandrayan 2 has been getting delayed. First, it was expected to be launched in October 2018. Then, it was moved to January 2019 and now the current date of its launch in April 2019.

Final Words

Despite the delays, Chandrayan 2 is one of the most anticipated missions that will be launched by ISRO. It is sometimes better to delay the mission until they are 100% satisfied. Hopefully, 2019 will see another successful mission by ISRO!

References
Isro
Wikipedia
The Week

ISRO Achievements

Indian Space and Research Organization (ISRO) has made India proud ever since its inception. Despite limited resources, it managed to achieve some huge milestones in the last few years. It came into existence in the year 1969, and since then it has only made India proud. The vision of ISRO is to harness space technology in a way that can help in the development of the country. ISRO is a unique organization in India where several brilliant and motivated minds work together under one roof to achieve some great things.

Let us check out some of the latest achievements of ISRO that has made India proud!

  1. ISRO Finally Launched Its Biggest Launch Vehicle

With GSLV-Mk3, ISRO successfully developed its heavyweight launch vehicle. This was one of the biggest achievements of ISRO in recent times that has made India proud. This launch vehicle is designed to carry the satellites that are classified as a 4-ton class to the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The former version of this launch vehicle was GSLV Mk2 whose capability was half of the current one. Hence, it is definitely one of the greatest achievements for ISRO.

  1. The Launch Of 104 Satellites with Only One Rocket

ISRO’s historic launch happened on February 15, 2017, when it successfully launched 104 satellites into space. This was one of the most difficult and complicated launches in the history of space exploration for India. Six other nations helped India to make this launch a grand success. All the satellites mentioned here were launched through PSLV-C37 at once. This launch happened in Andhra Pradesh at a spaceport located in Sriharikota. They were successful in putting all the mentioned satellites in the desired orbit as planned. No doubt, ISRO garnered a big name in the world space research after this launch. Everyone around the world lauded this launch. It is a great achievement by ISRO, and things are only going to get better after this.

  1. The Launch Of 31 Satellites in One Flight

After the launch of 104 satellites, the launch of 31 satellites seems like a cakewalk for ISRO. However, it is also a big achievement because a rocket that weighed 995 kg has 31 difference satellites from various countries including the UK, US as well as Germany. This was done by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle or PSLV – C38. The satellites that were launched by PSLV – C38 are used to keep a track on water distribution and also monitor roads. It was an essential launch because it aims at making the lives of a common man easier. These satellites directly have an impact on the quality of living of people on earth. There is no denying that these achievements not just make India proud but also contribute towards improving the living standards.

  1. The Launch of GSAT – 9

The South Asia Satellite or GSAT-9 was launched by GSLV-F09 or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark II in the GTO. The launch happened in 2017 on May 5. This marks an essential launch because consequently, it was the fourth time that ISRO succeeded in launching a satellite that developed Cryogenic Upper State indigenously. The main aim of this launch was to have a smooth and hassle-free network for communication between South-Asian countries. With this launch, ISRO succeeded in establishing a solid network for communication amongst the countries in South Asia.

  1. ISRO’s Chandrayan Discovered Water on Moon

ISRO has made India proud numerous times. In the year 2009, India’s Moon Impact Probe (MIP) which was an unmanned craft that was sent to the moon successfully detected and showed evidence of water there. It was later confirmed by NASA as well. This was a big breakthrough in space research and India played a vital role in it. Despite having lesser research funds as compared to NASA, India has still always managed to surprise the world with our breakthroughs. This is definitely one of the biggest achievements of ISRO that will be remembered for the generations to come.

Final Words

These are only a few achievements of ISRO that have made India very proud. Thanks to these successful projects, ISRO has made a place at the international arena in space research. The idea behind the inception of ISRO was to carry out space research in order to make the everyday lives of people easier and much more comfortable than they are in the present times. With so many satellites launched in various areas including weather updates, traffic updates, and others, ISRO definitely lives up to its mission. The five achievements mentioned above are just the tip of the iceberg. The more you read about ISRO, the prouder you would be of it. Despite several restrictions in the budget, ISRO has been successful in every aspect.

References:
India Today
Scoop Whoop
India Times
Isro

ISRO Indian Space Program

The National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) laid the foundation for the formation of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). INCOSPAR was set up in the year 1962 by the Government of India in order to start the research about space. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was the main visionary who played a vital role in the setup of Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in the capital city of Kerala in order to conduct research on the upper atmosphere. After this, ISRO superseded INCOSPAR in the year 1969 after the importance of research in Space as well as technology for national development was understood, thanks to Vikram Sarabhai.

The main vision and mission behind the establishment of ISRO were to offer services based on space and be able to develop these technologies independently within the country without any external help. Interestingly, ISRO has not only succeeded in fulfilling its mission and vision but also became one of the 6th largest space research agencies around the world. ISRO has also been successful in reaching out with its space services to the nation as well as the common man. There are many significant achievements of ISRO that has made India very proud. Some of the achievements are as follows:

  • INSAT: The Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) is one of the groups of satellites launched by ISRO that helps in telecommunication, meteorology, broadcasting, rescue operations and much more. It is managed by ISRO and is one of the biggest communication system satellites in the region of Asia Pacific. It helps in reliable communication.
  • IRS: The Indian Remote Sensing Program (IRS) started in the year 1988 by ISRO. The first satellite that was launched under this program was IRS-1A. This was one of the biggest moments for ISRO because it reflected that the space research programs of ISRO were becoming mature. It helps in the observation of Earth.
  • PSLV: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is a launch vehicle that was designed and is also operated by ISRO. It was developed with the idea to help ISRO in its launch of IRS satellites which was only available with Russia prior to the launch of PSLV. It is very credible for launching small satellites into the orbit and is one of the most significant achievements of ISRO.

These space programs and much more have been remarkable in showing the efforts that the scientists at ISRO have put in to make the Indian Space Program a grand success.

ISRO space programs aim at developing and delivering satellites as well as tools that improve the daily lives of a common man. Therefore, they focus on providing better weather forecasts, communications, disaster management tools, broadcasts, cartography, telemedicine, navigation, Geographic Information System, and much more. Overall, the ISRO Indian Space Program aims at making the lives Indians more convenient by learning more about space.

Apart from the advancements in technology, ISRO also made major contributions in the scientific research arena. There are many space research centers as well as autonomous space institutions that are dedicated to conducting regular research on astrophysics, astronomy, remote sensing, space sciences in general as well as atmospheric sciences. Some other critical scientific projects of ISRO Indian space program include interplanetary missions and lunar missions that contribute towards promoting education in the field of space research. Moreover, it offers some fascinating and valuable data that enrich the scientific community.

Thanks to a great foundation and some outstanding scientists at ISRO, India has made an indelible mark in space research worldwide. The contributions of Indian space research are lauded by the scientific community worldwide. ISRO continues with its space research and plans to develop human spaceflight projects, heavy lift launchers, semi-cryogenic engines and much more.